18
Aug

Gorakhpur hospital tragedy: What killed those 70 children?

Gorakhpur hospital tragedy: What killed those 70 children?

In Basti’s background NH-28 from Lucknow to Gorakhpur district hospital has an intensive care unit with 10 beds (UCI) supposedly reserved for patients with encephalitis, acute inflammation of the brain Often is the effect of a mosquito-borne disease .

On August 13, at eight o’clock in the morning, there were six beds occupying beds. The hospital staff was asleep on the floor. Ram Prakash, the supervising physician, said that the ICU only had one ventilator and that it did not work either. “All patients with critical encephalitis,” said Dr. Prakash, “are referred to the BRD Medical College in Gorakhpur.”

The hospital has been in the headlines due to the death of more than 70 children under its gaze since August 7. The government of Uttar Pradesh, resistant to criticism in the media, suspended a school principal and returned to the head of the hospital’s pediatric department.

Further to the Sahjanwa, in the Gorakhpur district, a community health center (CHC) was adjusted in 2015 from the six-bed encephalitis treatment center. At 11 am on August 13, there were no patients in the center.

The leaves here are saffron, in case they were in doubt that the holiday is in government. In the last week, there were no cases of encephalitis in CHC. In Gorakhpur, however, the 100-bed ICU hospital at BRD Medical College is full of patients suffering from encephalitis.

Many beds are used for more than one patient. The hospital is the only tertiary public hospital in the region and serves 400,000 outpatients and about 40,000 hospitalized patients each year. Hundreds of children die every year in the hospital, many with encephalitis.

Overcrowding and poor or poorly maintained facilities are at fault. In fact, many children died in the last week because the hospital did not pay a provider, which resulted in a lack of oxygen in the ITU.

The hospital denies reports. Although much of the information emerging from the hospital and state government is confusing, it could be that the only encephalitis is not the reason why many children are being dying

Hospital figures suggest that only 20% of the 30 children who died within 24 hours, between 10 and 11 August, had encephalitis. Their figures also show that as of July 931 of the 2,386 newborns admitted this year to the neonatal ICU, he died.
Yogi Adityanath, the UP Prime Minister, appointed a committee chaired by Secretary of State Rajiv Kumar to investigate the killings. A preliminary investigation found that the hospital squeak infrastructure and gruesome management are at least partially responsible.

In anonymity petition, a committee member said that ICU physicians are sent by the college while support staff, such as nurses and pharmacists, are appointed by the health department, resulting in a lack of coordination. Ashutosh Tandon, Minister of Technical and Medical Education of the State, “sought a report” from his ministry on the appalling lack of facilities in the hospital.

18
Aug

On A Move That Will Anger China, Vietnam Says Yes, India Denies

On A Move That Will Anger China, Vietnam Says Yes, India Denies

For the first time ever, the Vietnamese government confirmed today – albeit cautiously – that it has acquired BrahMos crossing missiles against the expedition in India. At a time when Delhi and China have been locked in their worst military confrontation for decades, Defense Ministry sources have refused to sell the missile systems to Vietnam, but they did not want to comment.

The acquisition of BrahMos will be considered by China as a challenging movement of Vietnam to protect its claim to the famous South China Sea, which Beijing claims fully as itself.

Vietnamese Foreign Ministry spokesman Thi Thu Hang, when asked a specific question about the acquisition of BrahMos, said earlier today: “The purchase of defense equipment by Vietnam is consistent with the policy of peace and self-defense and is the usual practice in national defense. ”

She added that the Vietnam-India Global Strategic Partnership, which includes defense cooperation, “contributes in a practical way to peace, stability, cooperation and development in the region.”

Brahmos supersonic cruising jaw
BrahMos missiles from India are considered one of the most advanced missiles of this type.

The statement by the Vietnamese government has been widely interpreted as a local media as confirmation that the BrahMos missile agreement, discussed for years, has reached its peak. Senior Vietnamese journalists told NDTV that the first batch of missiles could arrive a few days ago.

Co-developed by a Russian manufacturer and the Indian Defense Research and Development Organization, the BrahMos can accelerate at a speed of 2.8 times the speed of sound to hit enemy ships at 300 km.

In the final phase of its flight, the missile undertakes a series of extreme maneuvers to avoid interception by air surface missiles that can be triggered to prevent it from hitting its target.

The Indian Army has also acquired a variant of the missile ground attack with dive attack capability to enable BrahMos to accurately pinpoint targets in mountain areas.

Brahmos guided missile destroyer lights
BrahMos missiles can undertake a series of extreme maneuvers to avoid interception.

In April of this year, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army daily said: “The deployment of the BrahMos missile is likely to increase competition and antagonism in relations between China and India and will have an impact The stability of the region “.

The armies of the two countries are in the middle of a long dead end on the plateau of Doklam, situated on the border of Sikkim. China says the region belongs to it; India and Bhutan agree that it is a part of the small Himalayan kingdom.

In June, Indian soldiers surrendered to prevent the Chinese army from building a road that would give it strategic access to the “Chicken Neck” – the narrow piece of land that connects the northeastern states with the rest of the country ‘India….

18
Aug

MP BJP may get new president post Amit Shah visit

MP BJP may get new president post Amit Shah visit

Bhopal With Nandkumar Singh Chauhan who completed his three-year term as chairman of the state bureau, speculation that the BJP spread in Madhya Pradesh will soon have a new head of state after the 110-day organization tour Party Chairman Amit Shah, all over the country.

BJP sources said the state leadership has referred to party rules to induce changes in the state body and recommends changes in leadership after three years, with the exception of one special case.

In case of deviation, the party will have to change the rules, they said. “Nandkumar Singh assumed the post of head of state after the establishment of the NDA government in the Center and the new team of Amit Shah came to power in 2014.

Under the rules of the party, Singh completed three years of his term on August 16, 2017. If the BJP’s national leaders want him to continue as head of state, the party will have to make changes to the rules, which is unlikely in this case “A senior state official said.

Changes in the state body began before Balthor’s visit of Amit Shah when the party appointed Atul Rai as deputy general secretary. The order was released by the BJP’s national secretary general and party chief of staff Arun Singh on 16 August.

Rai, a member of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and the young leader of the Amit Shah team has been transferred to the state organization some time ago and has been appointed regional secretary (organization) of Mahakaushal before to assign the new publication.

Rai is also supposed to be close to the general secretary of the party organization, Suhas Bhagat, a food party and replaced the most influential leader Arvind Menon in his current position.

The recent events in the party also clarified that the party would prefer young faces with experience, in the direction of the State. Earlier it was reported that the Government Ministry Narottam Mishra, who is also close to Prime Minister Shivraj Singh Chouhan, could assume as the new president of the state.

Mishra had been assigned the duty of the Bundelkhand region during the exercises of the Uttar Pradesh assembly where the party got the maximum number of seats. The results not only proved their worth, but also brought him closer to party chairman Amit Shah.

But Mishra faced the Electoral Commission’s guidelines that disqualified him for his alleged involvement in the “new payment”. Mishra fights in a legal battle at the Delhi High Court, awaiting relief in the matter.

Mishra’s tense relations with Union Minister Narendra Singh Tomar, who is close to Prime Minister Narendra Singh Tomar, will be another major obstacle to regaining the coveted post.

Another permanent and national secretary general, Kailash Vijayavargiya, was also informed for the position of President of the State. However, Vijayavargiya resulted during the Uttar Pradesh assembly elections and current events in West Bengal.

18
Aug

All stakeholders must target the ‘new normal’ of political morality: Election Commissioner Rawat

All stakeholders must target the ‘new normal’ of political morality: Election Commissioner Rawat

The narrative that places the maximum bonus to win at all costs, in which lawmakers poacher hailed as a smart management policy, use of money for the indirect and difficult use of state mechanisms of intimidation were praised as débrouillardisme, Must be the object of the exemplary performance of all interested parties, said OP Rawat Election Commissioner.

Mr. Rawat’s remarks came a few days after Congress accused the BJP in the Center and in Gujarat of using agencies for intimidation and money to win their deputies before the Rajya Sabha elections in the state.

“The winner can not commit any sin: A custodian who crosses the field of government is cleared of all guilt, as well as possible crime, etc.”

It is this “new normality” of political morality that must be the object of exemplary action on the part of all political parties, politicians, the media, civil society organizations, constitutional authorities and all those who have confidence. Democracy for a better Election, a better future, “Rawat said.

The Commissioner of Elections made these statements in the “Regional Consultation on Electoral and Political Reforms – North Region” organized by the Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR).

In sharing the measures taken by the Electoral Commission to ensure free and fair elections, M. Rawat says that the electoral body has proposed to amend the relevant legislation to allow the presentation of the election in the alleged practice Corrupted also by a defeated candidate.

“The consequence is that if the Supreme Court has a person elected or not, guilty of a corrupt practice, there could be an additional disqualification of the person for a maximum of six years.”

The large influx of special interest groups to the electoral process would weaken democratic governance and lead to “policy capture” for a powerful but powerful group.

The introduction of electoral ties by the central government could be a step backwards in terms of transparency, he said.

Certain changes in the Income Tax Act, the People’s Representation Act and the Companies Act ensure that all donations received by a political party through an electoral link were removed as part of the contribution report.

“In addition, when contributions received through electoral ties are not declared, a reading of reports of contributions from political parties did not specify whether the party in question had donations in violation of section 29B of the Law on Representation of Persons, which prohibits The political parties receive donations from government companies and from foreign sources, “he warned.

The Commission also expressed concern that the abolition of the relevant provisions of the Companies Act (removal of the maximum limit of 7.5% of income from political donations) could lead to money laundering through the creation of fund companies. Funds for donations to the parties.

18
Aug

Delhi’s five star hotel security manager arrested for molesting woman executive granted bail

Delhi’s five star hotel security manager arrested for molesting woman executive granted bail

The security official of a five-star hotel who was arrested in Delhi for allegedly contravening a 33-year-old woman received a bail Friday, ANI reported

The arrest in the woman’s July 30 complaint came when the CCTV footage of the alleged incident was broadcast by television stations where the accused was allegedly tempted to pull the woman’s sari.
Dependra Pathak, chief spokesman for the Delhi police, said the accused had been examined and the woman’s statement was taken after she addressed the police with a complaint.

“At first glance, the guilt on the part of the accused was found and he was arrested on Friday. Additional investigations were undertaken,” said Pathak, Special Police Commissioner (Operations).

Representative image. Image AFPresentation. AFP
The woman claimed that the man had urged her to have physical relations with him and she resisted his advances.

On July 29, he called her for a birthday party in her room, offered to get her gifts and then tried to undress her, she alleged.

The woman told the police that she was complaining to the HR of the hotel but was fired.

Once the complaint was filed, the police questioned both parties and following an investigation, the accused was arrested on Friday, the officer said.

“Once the woman filed a complaint, a case was recorded and the evidence she gave was verified. She also submitted video surveillance measures that were submitted for verification,” said Mr Pathak .

The accused said some things to counter what the woman said and they were also examined.

Another officer who was aware of the investigation stated that the accused claimed that the woman had a boyfriend in the workplace and was violent towards her. Their conduct was inappropriate, according to the accused.

The accused said that one of the cameras installed at the hotel had captured his boyfriend’s assault, after which he was fired, the officer said.

The woman wanted her boyfriend to be hired and that day she came to the security director’s room to plead for the work of her boyfriend, the accused told the police.

He alleged that the CCTV film was concocted and processed.

However, the police have arrested the accused since it was found that the accused had touched his sari and his conduct was inappropriate ….

18
Aug

Decision is closer on strategy for Afghanistan: Mattis

Decision is closer on strategy for Afghanistan: Mattis

WASHINGTON: After months of heated internal debate, the Trump administration has almost made a decision on a new approach to fight the 16-year-old war in Afghanistan, Defense Secretary Jim Mattis said on Thursday. He gave no hint of what strategy would look like.

In remarks by the State Department, Mattis told reporters that President Donald Trump would hold talks with his national security team Friday at the presidential retreat of Camp David in Maryland, and said the talks “will move to a decision”.

“We are coming very close to a decision, and I anticipate it in the very near future,” he added.

A few months ago, the Pentagon had a plan to send about 3,800 additional troops to reinforce the Afghan army, which is stalled in what some call a stalemate impasse with the Taliban insurgency.

Some in the White House have questioned the wisdom of investing more resources in war, which is the longest in American history.

The administration said its strategy in Afghanistan would be informed by a review of its approach to the wider region, including Pakistan and India. The Taliban have long used Pakistan as a sanctuary, complicating efforts to defeat the insurgency in Afghanistan and stabilize the country.

The prospects in Afghanistan are obscured by the government’s struggle to end the Taliban’s progress. In its most recent report, the US Inspector General for the Reconstruction of Afghanistan said the Taliban is swinging in about half of the country.

Government forces are also fighting a subsidiary of the Islamic state that has widened mainly in eastern Afghanistan.

Trump has promised to crush IS, so the affiliate in Afghanistan poses an additional challenge without immediate solution. Just this week, an American soldier was killed and nearly a dozen were injured in combat with the IS affiliate.

The United States has about 8,400 soldiers in Afghanistan. Their main role is to train and advise Afghan forces, to hunt and kill members of al-Qaeda and other extremist groups.

Trump expressed his frustration at the protracted fighting in Afghanistan. Earlier this summer, he raised the idea of dismissing the first American commander there, General John Nicholson. On July 18, he said, “I want to know why we have been there for 17 years.”

Asked on Monday if Trump has confidence in Nicholson, Mattis has denied.
“Ask the president,” Mattis said. “I will tell you right away, he is our commander on the ground, he has the confidence of NATO, he has the confidence of Afghanistan, he has the confidence of the United States.”

Trump “looks at all aspects” of US involvement in Afghanistan “as it should in his responsibilities as commander-in-chief,” said Mattis.

Legislators in Congress are also frustrated by the war and the protracted debate within the administration on how to break the deadlock. Last week, the Republican senator

John McCain said that “America is adrift in Afghanistan”. He proposed a war strategy that would broaden the US counter-terrorism effort and provide increased support to the Afghan security forces.

18
Aug

TRUMP’S RACISM CRISIS DEEPENS OVER HIS BARCELONA COMMENTS

TRUMP’S RACISM CRISIS DEEPENS OVER HIS BARCELONA COMMENTS

A deadly attack on a tourist attraction in Barcelona Thursday caused rapid fire Tweets President Donald Trump, providing a critical test of the apparent support of the right anti-Muslim White House alternative.

A van that plunged into Barcelona’s Las Ramblas business district has killed at least a dozen people and wounded dozens more.

An Islamic State publication, QAMA News, quickly claimed the attack and said it was committed in retaliation against US coalition attacks on the armed group.

Trump quickly condemned the attack on Twitter: “The United States condemns the terrorist attack in Barcelona, Spain,” he writes, and will do whatever it takes to help. Be strong and strong, we love you! ”

Minutes later, the president continued: “Study what General Pershing did from the United States to the terrorists when they were taken in. There was no more radical Islamic terrorism for 35 years!
The tweet referred to rumors about United States General John Pershing who fired Filipino Muslim insults with balls soaked in pig blood in the 19th century. The stories have been widely discredited by historians.

The Washington Examiner right, an hour later, reported that the Trump tweeter “resuscitates” Pershing in a possible sign of greater scrutiny by US conservatives against the Trump administration.

American Muslims have quickly found an inconsistency in the handling of Trump Barcelona and the confrontation between white nationalists and their opponents in Charlottesville, Va., Who saw a Protestant antif died when a car plunged into a crowd.

“Obviously we condemn the attack in Barcelona, but we took minutes for Trump’s false information about General Pershing when he said he needed two days to do the facts about Charlottesville.

He just has to write a fake acquaintance just minutes from Barcelona, “said Corey Saylor, a spokesman for the Commission on the American-Islamic Relations advocacy group.

“IT IS ALWAYS THE ISLAMOPHOPE PANDER ALT-RIGHT IN THE DISCREDITED RESURRISSANT PACKAGE ABOUT THE GENERAL PERSHING PIGS OF PIGS.”

Trump condemned the murder of an anti-Protestant two days after his death. Facing criticism from the press for his refusal to reject racism and KKK, Trump said he needed time to gather data about what happened.

American Muslims and otherwise – get tired of Washington’s inaction over Trump’s divine comments, Saylor said. “Trump goes from crisis to crisis. Every time you think” that’s all “and DC will wake up, and it does not happen.

Unfortunately, I think we will continue to see that this administration basically turns Americans against each other. You will see Americans across this nation who think Trump is not their president looking for ways to resist. “

5
Aug

Tiger Woods Sorry After Arrest, Says Alcohol Not Involved

Tiger Woods was accused of driving under the influence of the Florida police Monday to beat the former world leader in his fight to resurrect his career.
The grand champion 14 times accused his arrest of a reaction to a prescription drug mix he took, insisting on an apology to fans that alcohol was not involved in the incident.
Woods, 41, was arrested by police near his home in Jupiter, Florida, around 3 am (0700 GMT) before his release Monday after being charged with driving under the influence.
A wooden police cup that had the chattering, windless air was quickly viral, highlighting the long fall of disgrace that plagued the superstar athlete, once recognized as a clean, corporate man of peace.
“I understand the gravity of what I did and I take full responsibility for my actions,” Woods said in a statement quoted by the US media as highlighting that “alcohol was not involved.”
“What happened was an unexpected reaction to the prescribed drugs. I did not realize that blending drugs had affected me so much,” Woods said.
“I apologize with all my heart to my family, friends and fans. I was expecting more of myself.”
The TMZ.com entertainment news website had cited sources of law enforcement, saying that Woods was arrested after being discovered “driving erratically across the road.” The website said the player refused to blow into a breathalyzer.
The arrest is the latest dark episode to hit Woods, who has dominated his sport before being engulfed by the turmoil in his private life and a series of debilitating injuries.
Woods has not played competitive golf since leaving the Dubai Desert Classic in February after a trip due to back pain.
He had a spinal surgery on April 20 – his fourth operation in three years to deal with the problematic back that was limited to three tournaments in the world in the last two years.
The torment of personal life
Woods wrote on his website last week that since the last procedure, he felt better than he had done for years and remains determined to return to competitive golf.
“My surgeon and the physiotherapist say the operation was done correctly. It’s just not getting stuck and leaving the whip,” Woods said.
“I walk, I do my exercises and I take my children to school.” “All I can do is take things day by day.” “There is no hurry, but I want to say unequivocally that I want to play golf again.”
Woods made his comeback in December after missing out on the entire 2015-16 season.
But his return failed quickly when he retired from the PGA tournament in Los Angeles in February of the Honda Classic and Arnold Palmer Invitational in March.
They even canceled a scheduled press conference at the Los Angeles tournament, saying that doctors had recommended “limiting all activities.”
He left the Masters in early April, missed most of the first year on the 20th anniversary of his epic victory at Augusta National in 1997, which marked his first major title and ushered in a new era in the game.
Woods, once expected to surpass Jack Nicklaus’ record in 18 major championships, has not won the Grand Slam title since the US Open 2008 at Torrey Pines.
The injuries were not the only disruptions during his career.
In November 2009, a car accident in front of his Florida home led to revelations of a series of infidelities that destroyed his marriage. He had then to the rehabilitation after the accident, according to the case, to the sexual addiction.
Amid the tabloid headlines, Woods took a professional golf break that lasted until the 2010 Masters.
Woods likely to revise Nicklaus has 18 older ones seen remotely. He was not involved in a major ranking since the PGA Championship in 2015, when he did not pass the cut. Also missed the cut of England and the United States.

30
Jul

In the plains of north India, Muslims rethink politics: A story of introspection

After a 20-minute conference in the political marginalization of Muslims in India, an eminent Muslim scholar on Deoband exchange floor Ulum Darul.

“We can be down, but we know one thing, the future is jamoooriyat, democracy, we have confidence in India, the Indian system during elections, no one can change the Constitution of India, and at the moment we are safe.

Even if the provision is part of the history of Muslims in contemporary India, political introspection is another. They think difficult political decisions they have made in the past and the political decisions they must make in the future. It is a remarkable opening time in the community. And all the options are on the table.

There are four, Manzar Islam teaches social sciences in Azad Academy Araria. During a conversation about the winning candidates of the first BJP candidate candidate at Narendra Modi in 2013, he said, the palpable irritation in his voice, “Why do you question a Muslim? Do you think we can love?” The confidence that Modi would not gain – because these are the same ones that opposed the Hindus, citing the end of UR Ananthmurthy and Amartya Sen.

Islam is retired and met at his home near his former school Araria. His tone changed palpably.

“What we do now? Even backwards and Dalits are with Modi. He will win in 2019.” Islam, in a tone of fact, speaks of the field of polarization. “Even at the level of the room, where the Muslim candidates, the other party will meet behind a Hindu candidate.” This mentality is percolated, we have to accept that the majority will decide.

Islam – an advocate for himself Nitish – said the situation leaves no community choice to commit to Modi and the BJP. “The community and the BJP must speak, look, Modi himself well, he does not discriminate, they are not even his disciples who cause problems, these are the people who act on his behalf. Be flexible, we can find common ground. ”

This is a voice that we hear more and more elderly people in the community, especially those who participate in the functioning institutions.

In Bareilly, Maulana Shahabuddin Razvi is director of the Islamic Research Center and secretary general of India Tanzeem Ulama-e-Islam.

He said that Muslims must accept the PM, and now the UP CM are from the BJP. “There are problems, but I am in favor of talking to them to say that we want to be partners of Sabka Saath, SAB ka Vikas. We are also citizens, we also have rights, we must remember. Muslims with the Qur’an on the one hand and on another laptop and make them implemented.We want to save the distance. “And adds that Yogi Adityanath also after CM resumed, the changed language said no way insensitive.

He responded to these impulses, even within the Muslim society that a delegation of the Jamiat-Ulema-i-Hind met with the prime minister. He raised the problems of the “gulf” between the government and the Muslim community, but the meeting also ushered in a kind of critical engagement.

22
Jul

With The Long-Haired Boys

In a recent event in which a hundred-year anniversary commemorating the life and work of Indira Gandhi was unveiled, President Pranab Mukherjee has underlined his commitment to food self-sufficiency. The publication of a coffee table book is not the occasion to detail the obstacles it has faced and the resolution with which it was resolved, but it is a completely unknown story. It is a little difficult for the current generation to visualize an India that lives in the forest. Food reservations were unthinkable. Food policy was to cover literally, the deficits of US imports. PL 480 and organise its distribution. Gandhi knew that global aid and the Bretton Woods system wanted India to depend on this link. I was fortunate to have a ring view on this great episode in Indian history.
Modelé a long-term plan for Gujarat and Sukhomoy Chakravarty led me to the Planning Commission to lead its powerful Planning Division of Perspective (PPD), an honor I accepted for the term of the deputation because they did not join the government of Permanent form. My predecessor, the indomitable Pitamber Pant, was a friend of Indira Gandhi. The files I inherited were always characterized by Pitamber Indira. His outlook was clear. She was humiliated when India had to ask for grains and wanted India to be freed from claws. The PPD was mandated to develop a self-sufficiency plan and there were difficulties to return to the PMO.
I discovered that the planning beans are done without any test data field. Unlike industrial plans, there were no projects or field studies used to allocate resources. The standards used as an additional acre of irrigation, give X quantity of cereals, were totally fictitious. The first thing we did was to gather information about success and failure stories and build a reasonable plan based on the data. I asked district fundraisers to send data in the early 1970s and compared it to 1960 to develop our plan. We said we needed eight hundred million rupees for irrigation – half the amount to complete
10 projects that languish for a decade and the rest of the wells cased. We have said that if we do this, we will produce 125 million tons of grain in 1978-79. We have become the laughter funds of the Ministry of Finance and the World Bank said that only the long-haired boys of the Planning Commission can dream about it. They said India’s food production would be 118 million tonnes and we will need seven to 10 million tonnes of imports. The Economic Survey said we could not cross 122 million tons in a good year for us, we mocked. Indira Gandhi was standing in front of the boys with the long hair of the Planning Commission. After the budget for 1975 to 1976, which forced the Ministry of Finance, despite its skepticism, to allocate PPD money wanted as additional budgetary allocation. We never look back. Our grain production in 1978-79 was
127 million tonnes, as President Mukherjee said in the Centennial function, and those who mocked us took advantage of his praise.
In Washington for a seminar in 1980, I was asked how India exceeded its goal of two million tons. Back in Ahmedabad by then, I can say with pride that I am from Gujarat and that I always play safely. Now, of course, those who were skeptical then also take credit, as they did in the centenary. This gives a comfortable feeling. Victorias Indira Gandhi belong to India. The next time you go to a party and eat well, remember that this great leader and his courage In May 1975 make the right decision, even when it was criticised. In many developing countries, you can not be crazy without feeling guilty.
In real terms, the allocation to agriculture was exceeded in 1975-76 in a year at least until the mid-1990s. After this, the CSO did not provide comparable data, so I do not know. Great leaders act and do not just talk.